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Criminal Justice studies

Criminal Justice studies and other journal articles examining contributing factors to wrongful convictions and other research potentially relevant to the Hartman murder case.

Documents

Order by : Name | Date | Hits [ Ascendant ]

One Hundred Years Later: Wrongful Convictions after a century of research One Hundred Years Later: Wrongful Convictions after a century of research

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Filesize: 883.21 kB

As the title suggests, this 2006 study, co-authored by Richard Leo and Jon Gould, provides a historic review of research into the worst examples of systemic failures delivering justice. 

From the introduction published in the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, the article "chronicles the range of research that has been conducted on wrongful convictions; examines the common sources of error in the criminaljustice system and their effects; suggests where additionalresearch and attention are needed; and discusses methodological strategiesfor improving the quality of research on wrongful convictions." 

Loftus-Harley: Why it is easier identifying someone close than far away? Loftus-Harley: Why it is easier identifying someone close than far away?

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Filesize: 1.55 MB

This 2004 study examines physical limits of facial recognition at distances far less than Arlo Olson stiid the night he claimed to recognize distant muggers. Professor Geoffrey Loftus, whose testimony for the defense during the Pease-Roberts trial, figured in a decade of appeals, subsequently partnered with UCLA's Erin Harley to quantify just how far away one can recognize even a familiar actress such as Julia Roberts.

Garrett-judging Innocence08 Garrett-judging Innocence08

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Filesize: 303.72 kB

Garrett's 2008 empirical study represents the most comprehensive review of the justice system's handling of individuals convicted of murder or rape later proven to be innocent through DNA evidence.

False confession problems- post-DNA world False confession problems- post-DNA world

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Filesize: 6.1 MB

This widely-circulated study by Richard Leo and Steve Drizin represented the largest group false confession cases ever identified and examined for common factors. First published in 2004 in the North Carolina Law Journal, this 117-page study continues to influence policy changes in criminal justice safeguards against false confessions. 

From the authors introduction: "This article has three goals. First, we provide and analyze basic demographic, legal, and case-specific descriptive data from these 125 cases. This is significant because this is the largest cohort of interrogation-induced false confession cases ever identified and studied in the research literature. 

Second, we analyze the role that (false) confession evidence played in these cases and how the defendants in these cases were treated by the criminal justice system. In particular, this article focuses on how criminal justice officials and triers-of-fact respond to confession evidence, whether it biases their evaluations and overwhelms other evidence (particularly evidence of innocence), and how likely false confessions are to lead to the wrongful arrest, prosecution, conviction, and incarceration of the innocent. Analysis of the aforementioned questions leads to the conclusion that the problem of interrogation-induced false confession in the American criminal justice system is far more significant than previously supposed. Furthermore, the problem of interrogation-induced false confessions has profound implications for the study of miscarriages of justice as well as the proper administration of justice. 

Third, and finally, this article suggests that several promising policy reforms, particularly mandatory electronic recording of police interrogations, will minimize the number of false confessions and thereby inject a much needed dose of justice into the American criminal justice system."


Eyewitness testimony: Staging reliable lineups Eyewitness testimony: Staging reliable lineups

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Filesize: 160.74 kB

The nation's leading expert on eyewitness testimony, Gary Wells, and co-researcher Elizabeth Olson, examine factors contributing to false identifications, the leading factor in wrongful convictions. This 2003 study focuses, in particular, on how police ought to set up and conduct lineups to best ensure correct identification of suspects. The procedures discussed can be contrasted to the way Fairbanks Police showed Arlo Olson a single car in the police garage, asking him to confirm it was THE car he observed used by the assailants he identified taking part in a distant robbery.  

"Miranda" Rights: The Power of Innocence." "Miranda" Rights: The Power of Innocence."

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Filesize: 1.44 MB

Innocence can actually place a suspect at increased risk of false confession when confronted by an interrogator who assumes he's dealing with a guilty party, according to "Why People Waive Their "Miranda" Rights: The Power of Innocence," a 2004 study by Saul M. Kassin and Rebecca J. Norwick, published in Law and Human Behavior.{jcomments on}